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(In Order of Appearance)

  • John 19:31 – The Jewish leaders did not want the bodies to stay on the crosses during the sabbath day. This sabbath was a very important one. So, since it was Friday,e they asked Pilate to hurry their death by breaking their legs. Then they could carry them away. Pilate allowed it. 
  • Acts 10:28
  • John 18:28 – Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to the Roman fortress. It was early in the morning. They didn’t go into the fortress, because they didn’t want to be made unclean. If so, they would not be permitted to eat the Passover lamb.d 
  • Luke 23:13-15
  • John 18:33-36 – Pilate went back into the fortress. He called for Jesus and asked him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” 34Jesus answered, “Are you saying this on your own, or did someone else tell you this about me?” 35Pilate answered, “I am not a Jew, am I? The leading priests and your own people turned you over to me! What have you done?” 36Jesus answered, “My kingdom does not come from this world. If it did, my servants would be fighting to keep the Jewish leaders from giving me to you. My kingdom is not from here.”
  • During excavations in 1961 at the ruins of Caesarea, the ancient seat of Roman government in Judea, a first-century inscription was uncovered confirming that Pilate had been the Roman ruler of the region at the time of Christ.  The plaque was found in the arena, the out-door theater built by Herod, and read: “”Pontius Pilate, the Prefect of Judea, has dedicated to the people of Caesarea a temple in honor of Tiberius.”
  • John 18:37-38 – Pilate said to him, “So then, you are a king!” Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. The reason I was born, the reason why I have come into the world is to give evidence for the truth. Every person who listens to my voice comes from the truth.” 38Pilate asked, “What is truth?”
  • Matthew 27:15-23
  • Matthew 27:2-27
  • Matthew 27:28-29
  • Matthew 27:30
  • A stone court or Gabatha, meaning pavement, was discovered in Jerusalem around 1951 with the combined efforts of the Dames de Siuon, the Franciscans of the Covnant of Flagellation, and archaeologist L. H. Vincent.  It is right outside the Temple at the site of the Tower and barrachs/praetorium of Antonia.  However, this may not been the stone court Pilate made his ruling from.  Josephus referred to Herod setting up his judgment seat at his palace (WARS OF THE JEWS, Bk. 2, 14:8).
  • John 19:4-16 – Pilate went back out and spoke to them, “Look, I am bringing him out to you, so that you will know that I find nothing wrong with him.” 5Then Jesus came outside. He was wearing the thorny crown and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Look at the man!” 6When the most important priests and the temple guards saw Jesus, they shouted, “Nail him to a cross! Nail him to a cross!” Pilate said to them, “You take him and nail him to a cross! I find nothing wrong with him.” 7But the Jewish leaders answered him, “We have a law. According to the law, he must die, because he made himself God’s Son!” 8When Pilate heard this statement, he was even more afraid. 9So Pilate went back into the fortress and asked Jesus, “Where do you come from?” Jesus did not give him an answer. 10Then Pilate said to him, “Aren’t you speaking to me? Surely you must know I have authority to set you free and I have authority to nail you to a cross!” 11Jesus answered Pilate, “You have no authority over me at all, unless it has been given to you by God! That is why the man who gave me to you has even more guilt.” 12From this time on, Pilate tried hard to set Jesus free. But the Jewish leaders continued to yell, “If you set this man free, you are not ‘Caesar’s friend’! Anyone who makes himself a king is speaking against Caesar!”  13When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus outside. Pilate sat down on the judge’s seat. He was at a place called “The Stone Pavement.” (In the Aramaic language, the name was Gabbatha.) 14It was about noon on the day before the Passover Festival. Pilate said to the Jewish leaders, “Look, your King!” 15They yelled, “Take him away! Take him away! Nail him to a cross!” Pilate said to them, “Should I nail your King to a cross?” The most important priests answered, “The only king we have is Caesar!” 16Then Pilate turned Jesus over to them to be nailed to the cross. So they took hold of Jesus.
  • Leviticus 16:29-31 – “This law will always continue for you: On the tenth day of the seventh month,z you must not eat.aa You must not do any work. The travelers or foreigners who live among you must not work either. 30Why? Because, on this day, the priests will make you ‘clean.’ All of your sins will be canceled in My presence. You will be ‘clean.’ 31This is a very important day of rest [“day of rest” comes from word Sabbath” for all of you. And, you must fast. This law will always continue.
  • This shows that, although the seventh day of each week was to be a weekly sabbath, there were other sabbaths set for certain days of the year and could not have always fallen on Saturday.
  • Exodus 3:14-15 – God answered Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.”h God continued, “This is what you will tell the sons of Israel: ‘I AMi has sent me to you.’ 15God also said to Moses, “Tell the sons of Israel: ‘The Always-Present One,j the God of your ancestors—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob—has sent me to you.’ This is My Name forever. I will be remembered by this Name from generation to generation.
  • Isaiah 52:15 [PROPHESIED 100 YEARS BEFORE JESUS] So, he startledff many people. Kings will shut their mouths in admiration of They will see the things that they had not been told about My Servant, the Messiah.hh And, they will understandii the things that they had never heard before.”jj
  • Psalm 2:6 [PREDICTED 1000 YEARS BEFORE JESUS] – He says: “I have anointed My own king!He will rule in Jerusalem on My holy mountain.”f
  • Isaiah 53:5  – They are filled with terror, when there is no hint of terror. God will scatter the bones of your enemies. You will defeat them because God has rejected them.
  • Psalm 129:3 [PREDICTED 1000 YEARS BEFORE JESUS] – Like farmers plowing, they plowed over my back, making long furrows.
  • Psalm 23:1-3– <A psalma of  David.> Yahweh is my Shepherd.I have everything I need. 2He gives me rest in green pastures.He leads me beside calm waters. 3He gives me new strength.d For the sake of His Name, He guides me in paths that are right.e
  • Psalm 62:1 –
  • Psalm 3:2-3 [PREDICTED 1000 YEARS BEFORE JESUS] – Many people are talking about me. They say: “God will not rescue him!” (Selah)3Nevertheless, O Yahweh, You are a shield around me. You are my wonderful God who gives me courage.
  • Psalm 6:5-6 – Dead people don’t remember You.Those in the grave do not praise You.c 6I am in pain; I’m tired. Every night, my bed is wet with my tears. I have soaked my pillow from crying.
  • Psalm 7:1-5 [PREDICTED 1000 YEARS BEFORE JESUS] – <A songa of David, which he sang to Yahweh concerning the words of Cush, a Benjaminite.>O Yahweh my God, I trust in You for protection. Save me and rescue me from all those who are chasing me. 2Otherwise, they will tear me apart like a lion, ripping me to pieces, and no one else could save me.  3O Yahweh my God, what have I done!? Have my hands done something wrong!? 4Have I done wrong to my friend!? Have I stolen from my enemy!? 5If I have done any of these things, then let my enemy chase me and capture me. Let him stomp me to death. Let him bury me in the dust. (Selah)


  • SHOCK – Shock is produced by hemorrhage and insufficient return of blood to the heart.  Due to extensive tissue damage, wound shock may be complicated by both pain and excessive fluid loss evidenced by separating of solids and plasma in the blood.  The patient appears tense and anxious.  Pallor and sweating are evidenced.  The tongue is dry.  The pulse is soft, faint and rapid.  Veins are collapsed and fill poorly.  Hyperventilation is frequent.  Death can result.
  • WARS OF THE JEWS, BK. 6, 4:2-5The soldiers had already put fire to the gates…whence it spread itself all on the sudden, and caught hold of the cloisters….Now burning…though the holy house itself had been on fire already….This fire prevailed during that day and the next….The Jews…guarded the outward court of the temple very boldly….shut themselves up in the inner court of the temple….those that guarded the holy house fought with those that quenched the fire that was burning in the inner court of the temple….Now, round about the altar lay dead bodies heaped one upon another; as at the steps going up to it ran a great quantity of their blood, whither also the dead bodies that were slain above on the altar fell down….the flame burst out from within the holy house itself…and thus was the holy house burnt down.
  • ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, BK. 17, 10:4-10Now, at this time there were TEN THOUSAND other DISORDERS in Judea….In particular, two thousands of Herod’s old SOLDIERS….There was also JUDAS…who had been head of the robbers…made an assault on the palace….There was also SIMON…a slave…declared to be a king…cut off his head….ATHRONGES…a shepherd…so bold as to set up for king…grew more cruel…subdued……And now Judea was full of robberies…of the seditious…created a king in order to do mischief to the public…the murders they committed….now the number of those that were CRUCIFIED on this account were TWO THOUSAND.  Now there is a new movement.  The fellow leading this one is strange.  He tells people they can have dual citizenship.  That is because no one can see his kingdom – it is spiritual, whatever that means.  Well, with all the crazies out there killing to take over, he seems harmless enough. There was an enormous cavalcade in his honor a few days ago.  Procurator Pilate thought it rather amusing.  An invisible kingdom, indeed.
  • WARS OF THE JEWS, BK. 2, 9:2 – But upon Pilate’s denial of their request, they fell down prostrate upon the ground, and continued immovable in that posture for five days and as many nights.
  • Antiquities of the Jews, Bk. 15, 8:4
  • ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, BK 15, 8:4; BK 16, 8:1,4; 10:5; 11:6 – …underwent all the torments inflicted on them till they died…bitter and severe tortures….more severely tortured and were in the utmost extremity….tortured and put not a few of them to death…in the utmost agony….tortured before the multitude….tortured…his father already…his terrible sufferings.
  • ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, BK. 8, 4:2But when this tumult was appeased, the Samaritan senate sent an embassy…ordered Pilate to go to Rome, to answer before the emperor to the accusations of the Jews.  So Pilate, when he had tarried ten years in Judea, made haste to Rome….
  • THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, CH. 2  – Pontius Pilate transmits to Tiberius [Caesar] an account of the circumstances concerning the resurrection of our Lord from the dead…he ascertained other miracles…he was believed to be a God by the great mass of the people….communicated with the senate, being obviously pleased with the doctrine; but the senate, as they had not proposed the measure, rejected it.  But he continued in his opinion, threatening death to the accusers of the Christians.
  • THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF EUSEBIUS PAMPHILUS, CH. 7 – …this same Pilate, who was governor at our Saviour’s crucifixion, in the reign of Caius [Caesar]…fell into such calamities that he was forced to become his own murderer, and the avenger of his own wickedness….stated by those Greek historians who have recorded the Olympiads in order, together with the transactions of the times.
  • ANNAL. LIV. XV, CAP. 44 (AS QUOTED IN FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS DISSERTION I) – Nero, in order to stifle the rumour (as if he himself had set Rome on fire,) ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar, Christians; these he punished exquisitely.  The author of this name was Christ who, in the reign of Tiberius, was brought to punishment by Pontiius Pilate the procurator.
  • AN EXPOSITORY DICTIONARY OF NEW TESTAMENT WORDS – Sabbath did not mean seventh; it meant day of ceasing from ordinary work.]